Biology G — General Botany Prerequisites: Biology G This course is designed to satisfy the major requirements for an Associate or Baccalaureate degree in the Biological Sciences. Biology G complements Biology G and G as the third of three in a sequence of survey courses.
Most notably, developments after World War II called for new ways of thinking about people, society, and their connection. In the United Statespioneering longitudinal studies of children born in the s became studies of adults as the children grew up, thereby raising questions about the course they followed to the adult years and beyond.
Insights regarding old age directed inquiry to earlier phases of life and to the process by which life patterns are shaped by a changing society. This essay presents the life course as a theoretical orientation for the study of individual lives, human development, and aging.
In concept, the life course refers to a pattern of age-graded events and social roles that is embedded in social structures and subject to historical change. These structures vary from family relations and friendships at the micro level to age-graded work organizations and government policies at the macro level.
Lifecourse theory defines a common domain of inquiry with a framework that guides research in terms of problem identification and formulation, variable selection and rationales, and strategies of design and analysis.
Beginning in the s, this theoretical orientation has diffused across substantive domains and disciplinary boundaries in the social and behavioral science. It has uniquely forged a conceptual bridge between developmental processes, the life course, and ongoing changes in society, one based on the premise that age places people in the social structure and in particular birth cohorts.
Each of these levels are illustrated by Spilerman in terms of work. He used the concept of "career line" to refer to pathways that are defined by the aggregated work histories of individuals.
Career lines are patterned by industry structures and the labor market. At the psychological level, changes in work life have consequences for personal feelings of efficacy Bandura In this essay, I first take up concepts that have been used interchangeably—the life course, life cycle, life history, and life span.
Then I turn to the emergence of life-course theory since the s and its paradigmatic principles. The concept of life course is defined by trajectories that extend across the life span, such as family or work; and by short-term changes or transitions, such as entering and leaving school, acquiring a full-time job, and the first marriage.
Each life-course transition is embedded in a trajectory that gives it specific form and meaning. Thus, work transitions are core elements of a work-life trajectory; and births are key markers along a parental trajectory.
Multiple marriages and divorces are elements of a marital trajectory. Multiple roles of this kind become interlocking trajectories over time. These linked trajectories may define the life course of a parent and her child. The synchronization of role demands may entail a spreading out of commitments or obligations, as in the transition to adulthood or in the family formation years.
The synchronization of lives is central to life-course planning in families. Major transitions in the life course typically involve multiple life changes, from entry into the diverse roles of adulthood Modell to later-life changes in work, residence, and family Hareven ; Kohli These transitions may also entail a sequence of phases or choice points.
The transition to unwed motherhood thus involves premarital sexual experience followed by decisions not to have an abortion, not to give the child up for adoption, and not to marry the father.
Causal influences vary across choice points. Early transitions can have developmental consequences by affecting subsequent transitions, even after many years and decades have passed. They do so through behavioral consequences that set in motion cumulative disadvantages or advantages, with radiating implications for other aspects of life Furstenberg et al.
For example, early teenage childbearing may curtail education and work-life prospects. The social meanings of age give structure to the life course through age norms, sanctions, and age-graded relationships.
In theory, a normative concept of social time specifies an appropriate time or age for marriage, childbearing, and retirement Neugarten and Datan Empirical findings are beginning to cumulate on event timing, sequences, and durations, although the knowledge base is thin on causal mechanisms Shanahan in press.
Beyond these social distinctions, age has historical significance for the life course as it locates people in historical context according to birth cohorts. Family connections invariably place the life course in a broader matrix of kinship relationships, one that extends beyond the boundaries of the immediate family to in-laws, grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins Rossi and Rossi Within the life course of each generation, unexpected and involuntary events occur through life changes in related generations.
Thus, a thirty-year old woman becomes a grandmother when her adolescent daughter has a first baby. People lose their status as grandchildren when their grandparents pass away, and their roles as sons or daughters when their parents die.
They become the oldest generation in the family. Ties to family members are part of the normative regulation of life-course decisions.
This sequence, it should be noted, refers to a reproductive process in human populations.Annotated Bibliography The Dynamic Interdependence of Developmental Domains across Emerging Adulthood Passages to Adulthood: Linking Demographic Changes and Human Development And.
Changes include physical and cognitive development including primary and secondary aging, intelligence and memory, health and biological factors, relationships, personality, and transition factors (grief and loss issues, and retirement).
I will address the above using scholarly peer reviewed journals. Youth Homelessness and Social Stigma Tijdschrift: Journal of Youth and Adolescence > Uitgave 3/ The Dynamic Interdependence of Developmental Domains Across Emerging Adulthood.
Origina Paper. Two Sides of the Same Coin? The Relations between . This chapter reviews the developmental features of emerging adulthood and explores the ways in which mindfulness is a useful developmental aid for this age group. The specifi c strategies employed in Koru, a program designed at Duke University to make mindfulness accessible to college students, are described.
Emerging adulthood is a period in which profound role changes take place across a number of life domains including finance, romance, and residence. On the basis of dynamic systems theory, change. Annotated Bibliography The Dynamic Interdependence of Developmental Domains across Emerging Adulthood Passages to Adulthood: Linking Demographic Changes and Human Development And.