The conversion of constantine essay

Here the spelling and the use of italics has been modernized; the subject headings which were set in the margins are placed in the body of the text; and the scripture references in the margin are inserted in the text in square brackets. The many references to works of the church fathers which appeared in the margins are here omitted.

The conversion of constantine essay

We soon forget the crowd of victims who have fallen in the course of innumerable battles, not only because this is a destiny inevitable in war, but because those who thus fell might also have given death to their enemies, and did not lose their lives without defending themselves.

The conversion of constantine essay

In this strange affair, we find religion, suicide, and parricide. The object of inquiry was, whether a father and a mother had murdered their own son in order to please God, and whether a brother had murdered his brother, or a friend his friend; or whether the judges had to reproach themselves with having broken on the wheel an innocent father, or with having acquitted a guilty mother, brother, and friend.

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Jean Calas, a person of sixty-eight years of age, had followed the profession of a merchant in Toulouse for upwards of forty years, and was known by all as a good parent in his family.

He was a Protestant, as was also his wife, and all his children, one son only excepted, who had abjured heresy, and to whom the father allowed a small annuity. Indeed, he appeared so far removed from that absurd fanaticism which destroys the bonds of society, that he even approved of the conversion of his son, Louis Calas, and he had for thirty years a maid-servant, who was a zealous Catholic, and who had brought up all his children.

Another of his sons, whose name was Marc-Antoine, was a man of letters, but, at the same time, of a restless, gloomy, and violent disposition. This young man finding that he could neither succeed nor enter into business as a merchant, for which indeed he was very unfit, nor be admitted to the bar as a lawyer, because he lacked the certificates of his being a Catholic, resolved to end his life, and gave some intimation of his design to one of his friends.

He confirmed himself in his resolution by reading everything that had been written upon the subject of suicide. At length, one day, having lost all his money in gambling, he chose that as a most proper opportunity for executing his design.

A friend named Lavaisse, a young man of nineteen years of age, the son of a famous lawyer of Toulouse, and a youth esteemed by every one who knew him, happened to come from Bordeaux the evening before. He went by chance to dine with the Calas family at their house.

Old Calas, his wife, Marc-Antoine, their eldest son, and Pierre their second son, all ate together that evening; after supper was over, they retired into another room, when Marc-Antoine suddenly disappeared.

List of converts to Catholicism - Wikipedia Although in the first few centuries AD Christians were prosecuted and punished, often with death, there were also periods when they were more secure.
Christian Vandalism in the East Are Russian Jews Descended from the Khazars? Unauthorized reproduction of this page is prohibited.
War and Other Essays - Online Library of Liberty The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts.

After some time, young Lavaisse took his leave, and Pierre Calas accompanied him downstairs; when they came near the store they saw Marc-Antoine hanging in his shirt behind the door, and his coat folded up and laid upon the counter.

His shirt was not in the least rumpled, and his hair was well combed. There was no wound on his body, nor any other mark of violence.

We shall not here enter into all the minute circumstances with which the lawyers have filled their briefs; nor shall we describe the grief and despair of the unhappy parents; their cries were heard by the whole neighborhood. Lavaisse and Peter Calas, almost beside themselves, ran, the one to fetch a surgeon, and the other an officer of justice.

While they were thus employed, and old Calas and his wife were sobbing in tears, the people of Toulouse gathered in crowds about the house. The Toulousians are a superstitious and headstrong people; they look upon their brothers who are not of the same religion as themselves, as monsters.

It was at Toulouse that a solemn thanksgiving was ordered for the death of Henry III and that the inhabitants took an oath to murder the first person who should propose to acknowledge that great and good prince Henry IV for their sovereign.

This same city still continues to solemnize, by an annual procession and bonfires, the day on which, about two hundred years ago, it ordered the massacre of four thousand of its citizens as heretics.

In vain has the council issued six decrees prohibiting this detestable holiday. The Toulousians still continue to celebrate it as a high festival. Some fanatic among the mob cried out that Jean Calas had hanged his own son; this cry, taken up, became in an instant unanimous; some persons added that the deceased was to have made his abjuration the next day; that his own family and young Lavaisse had murdered him out of hatred for the Catholic religion.

No sooner was this opinion stated than it was fully believed by every one; and the whole town was persuaded that it is one of the articles of the Protestant religion for a father or mother to murder their own son, if he attempts to change his faith.

When minds are once aroused, they are not easily appeased.Within 50 years of Constantine, Christ gets an identical face!

JESUS. 4th century mosaic, one of the earliest known depictions of Christ.. CONSTANTINE.

The conversion of constantine essay

4th century head of Emperor Constantine. Below is the original essay prefixed to the King James Version in the edition of , in which the translators defend their version against criticisms they expected to be brought against it.

The famous Temple of Apollo at Patara was destroyed, possibly by St Nicholas, a bishop now better known as Santa Claus. Certainly he, like many other bishops, was a keen destroyer of other people's holy places in the area.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY. THE subject of this Essay is not the so-called Liberty of the Will, so unfortunately opposed to the misnamed doctrine of Philosophical Necessity; but Civil, or Social Liberty: the nature and limits of the power which can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual.

A question seldom stated, and hardly ever discussed, in general terms, but which profoundly. The following is an incomplete list of notable individuals who converted to Catholicism from a different religion or no religion. Below is the original essay prefixed to the King James Version in the edition of , in which the translators defend their version against criticisms they expected to be brought against it.

John Stuart Mill: On Liberty