Students writing in a second language are also faced with social and cognitive challenges related to second language acquisition. L1 models of writing instruction and research on composing processes have been the theoretical basis for using the process approach in L2 writing pedagogy. However, language proficiency and competence underlies the ability to write in the L2 in a fundamental way.
The introduction opening paragraph basically accomplishes two goals: Open with a series of questions about the topic. Present startling or unusual facts or figures. Define an important, subject related term.
Quote a well known person or literary work. Body Developmental paragraphs body paragraphs are the heart of an essay. They must clearly and logically support the thesis. They must be arranged in the best possible way, e.
The paragraphs should flow smoothly from one to the next, e. In addition, minor supporting ideas are linked together within the paragraphs in a smooth manner. Conclusion The conclusion is the summary paragraph.
It should accomplish the following: Development General-to-specific sequence The topic sentence should be the first sentence in a paragraph. The topic sentence is a general statement introducing the paragraph and is followed by specific details that expand, explain, or illustrate the topic sentence.
Unity All the sentences should relate to one topic. Completeness Supporting ideas should be developed enough to cover the topic. Coherence Coherence equals connection and consistency.
Body paragraphs should flow smoothly from one to the next, e. Within a paragraph, there are three major ways to develop coherence through related sentences: Repetition of important words and pronouns - Repetition of key words helps the reader follow from sentence to sentence as important terms are defined and the relationship between them is explained.
Synonyms and substitutions - Synonyms are two or more words that have nearly the same thing. Substitution is a word that describes the subject. Transitional expressions - Transitional expressions are words and phrases that point out the exact relationship between one idea and another, one sentence and another, e.
Just as the sentences within a paragraph should flow smoothly, so the paragraphs within an essay should be clearly linked one to the next. The first sentence of each new paragraph is linked to the thesis statement or to the paragraph before.
The following are four ways to link paragraphs: Repetition of key words or ideas from the thesis statement 2. Reference to words or ideas from the preceding paragraph 3. Use of transitional expressions 4.
Use of transitional sentences A closer look at development Comparison and Contrast There are two ways to present similarities and differences between two things being compared or contrasted.The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
Sandra Cisneros (born December 20, ) is a Mexican-American writer. She is best known for her first novel The House on Mango Street () and her subsequent short story collection Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories ().
Her work experiments with literary forms and investigates emerging subject positions, which Cisneros herself attributes to growing up in a context of cultural.
Learn English Paragraph Writing Skills (new and improved edition II of Academic writing Skills for Graduate Students) is an academic paragraph writing skills guide for International ESL students. Guidelines for using IN-TEXT CITATIONS in a SUMMARY (or RESEARCH PAPER) Christine Bauer-Ramazani.
The purpose of a summary is to give the reader, in a about 1/3 of the original length of an article/lecture, a clear, objective picture of the original lecture or text.
How to Write a Book Report. In this Article: Article Summary Researching and Outlining Your Report Writing the Body of Your Report Finishing Up Your Report Sample Book Report and Summaries Community Q&A Writing a book report may not seem fun at first, but it gives you a great chance to really understand a work and its author.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.