Next Freedom to create. The key to success is stanza organization and the consistency of metrical and rhyme patterns. Your poem should be a celebration — of a person, an event, an achievement, a relationship, an animal, an ordinary object, or simply the day. The Pindaric Ode — the public celebration form — uses a three-stanza structure repeated throughout the poem strophe-antistrophe-epodewith the strophe and antistrophe using identical meter and rhyme patterns.
A common perception is that open form is easier and less rigorous than closed form Frost likened it to "playing tennis with the net down" but such is not necessarily the case skeptics should try playing tennis without a net: In the best open form poems, the poet achieves something that is inaccessible through closed form.
Kennedy has said, "Should the poet succeed, then the discovered arrangement will seem exactly right for what the poem is saying" A noiseless patient spider, I marked where on a little promontory it stood isolated, Marked how to explore the vacant vast surrounding, It launched forth filament, filament, filament, out of itself, Ever unreeling them, ever tirelessly speeding them.
And you O my soul where you stand, Surrounded, detached, in measureless oceans of space, Ceaselessly musing, venturing, throwing, seeking the spheres to connect them, Till the bridge you will need to be formed, till the ductile anchor hold, Till the gossamer thread you fling catch somewhere, O my soul.
Just as the spider and the soul quest outward for significance, the two stanzas throw links to each other with subtly paired words: In this poem, Whitman uses synonyms and antonyms to give structural integrity to a poem comprising two yoked stanzas, much like but not exactly like the way poets working within closed forms use meter and rhyme to give structural integrity to their poems.
The form works quite well, but there is no established term that describes it.
Rather, Whitman created this form so that he could write this poem. Conceivably, other poets could adopt the form, and repeated examples would give literary analysts the material they would need to specify its defining characteristics and give it a name.
Instead, we have one poem that deploys a structure very well suited to its subject. The poem has form, but the form was not imposed by previous conventions. It has open form. The surface is not necessarily the essence of the poem although in some cases notably, the works of William McGonagall there is little beyond the immediate.
Allegoryconnotation and metaphor are some of the subtler ways in which a poet communicates with the reader. Before getting seduced into explorations of subtle nuance, however, the reader should establish the theme of the poem.
Not the literal story but the heart of the poem. William Harmon [ full citation needed ] has suggested that starting an analysis with: George Herbert in his poem Jordan I  asks if poetry must be about the imaginary. Who sayes that fictions onely and false hair Become a verse?
Is there in truth no beautie? Is all good structure in a winding stair? May no lines passe, except they do their dutie Not to a true, but painted chair?
He was railing against the prevalent enthusiasm for pastoral poetry above all other forms as becomes apparent in subsequent verses. Curiously, this verse uses metaphors to challenge the use of indirect approaches to their subject. False hair and a painted chair are decorations of the mundane.
The winding stair is obstructive concealment of meaning. Herbert is criticising the overuse of allegory, symbolism or elaborate language. For most poets—even the plain-speaking Herbert—metaphor is the fundamental means of communicating complexity succinctly.
Some metaphors become so widely used that they are widely recognised symbols and these can be identified by using a specialist dictionary.
Allegorical verse uses an extended metaphor to provide the framework for the whole work.
The symbolism used in a poem may not always be as overt as metaphor. Often the poet communicates emotionally by selecting words with particular connotations. For example, the word "sheen" in The Destruction of Sennacherib has stronger connotations of polishing, of human industry, than does the similar "shine".
The Assyrians did not simply choose shiny metal; they worked to make it so. The word hints at a military machine. Other tropes that may be used to increase the level of allusion include ironylitotessimileand metonymy particularly synecdoche. Meter and rhythm[ edit ] English language poetic meter depends on stressrather than the number of syllables.
This often makes scansion the analysis of metrical patterns seem unduly arcane and arbitrary to students of the craft. Nonetheless, they provide a tool for discerning and describing the underlying structure of poems especially those employing closed form.
The iamb and anapest are known as rising meters they move "up" from weak to strong syllables ; the trochee and dactyl are falling meters they move "down" from strong to weak. The terms for line length follow a regular pattern: Another useful term is caesurafor a natural pause within a line.
Meter and line length are not formulas for successful lines of poetry.Elizabeth Bishop's poem One Art is in the form of a villanelle, a traditional, repetitive kind of poem of nineteen lines. In it she meditates on the art of losing, building up a small catalogue of losses which includes house keys and a mother's watch, before climaxing in the loss of houses, land and a loved one.
Poetry is a compact language that expresses complex feelings. To understand the multiple meanings of a poem, readers must examine its words and phrasing from the perspectives of rhythm, sound, images, obvious meaning, and implied meaning. A Different History written by Sujata Bhatt portrays the loss of language and cultures after colonization in India.
This poem describes the bitterness and sadness Bhatt felt about her mother tongue and cultures. A critical reading of Ted Hughes's 'The thought-fox' in relation to the conflict in his poetry between violence and tenderness. How to Read a Poem [Terry Eagleton] on caninariojana.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Lucid, entertaining and full of insight, How To Read A Poem is designed to banish the intimidation that too often attends thesubject of poetry. It is important to know about Sujata Bhatt’s context in order to make sense of ‘A Different History’. Sujata Bhatt’s context is reflected in the poem in ‘A Different History’ she expresses her concern about the issues of colonisation and westernisation.